People tend to think of ‘harm’ as limited to the individual human body or psyche. For Andrew Linklater and other cosmopolitans, such shared vulnerability forms the basis of a common or universal solidarity. However, the meaning of harm and its relationship to shared vulnerability was transformed with the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Nuclear harms violated not only the body, but the human frame that separates humans from nature. Despite this, nuclear thinking remains trapped within what I call, the human frame. I argue that there remains an unexplored, yet crucial, aspect of nuclear harms: they violate not only the human body, but also the global biosphere on which all life depends. To render these human-biosphere connections visible in nuclear discourse, this project problematizes our existing moral category of harm by (re)constructing the nuclear thinking of a little-known Environmental Philosopher, Richard Routley, whose work was variously self-published or unpublished at the time of his death in 1996. It uses Routley’s “last man example” to question the commonplace binaries between present and future obligations, the local and the global, as well as humanity and nature.
The notion that nuclear harms are fundamentally ecological invites us to interpret anew—or reimagine—the prevailing understanding of human relations with the non-human world. Within this context, this thesis calls for a new, multi-centred, nuclear ethical theory for humanity and the biosphere. I argue that doing so requires nothing less than re-imagining the conceptual, empirical, and normative characteristics of harm in the nuclear age, but also our understanding of subsequent efforts to variously prohibit the pain, suffering and vulnerability that accompanies them.
Empirically, it involves reimagining the problem of nuclear harm so as to encompass not only the harm that is inflicted by nuclear weapons and war, but also those forms of nuclear harm that arise from civilian and military nuclear accidents and waste. Conceptually, it awakens us to the fundamental fact that such nuclear harms reaffirm the co-constitution and mutual-implication of humanity and Earth’s biosphere. Further, that nuclear harms occur on greater-than-human spatio-temporal scales casts doubt on the continued distinction between the human and non-human, or natural, worlds. Normatively, it prompts us to take seriously the need for a new, multi-centred, nuclear ethical theory that neither de-centres the idea of humanity nor relegates it to the periphery, but rather (re)situates nuclear harms to humans in ecological terms and the ecological dimensions of nuclear harm in ethical terms.
Responding to criticisms that normative thought seldom addresses problems that actually arise, the potentialities for this new way of thinking is then demonstrated by applying these empirical, conceptual and normative re-imaginings to two types of nuclear harm prohibitions. The first type to be examined—in Chapter 4—is the civil society-led nuclear-free zones in uninhabited and inhabited areas (i.e. Antarctica and New Zealand) and nuclear-weapon-free zones in uninhabited and inhabited areas (i.e. the global biosphere and Southern Hemisphere). Analysed for their spatial insights, these zonal arrangements are reimagined as denuclearised zones of life. The second type of nuclear harm prohibition to be examined for their temporal insights—in Chapter 5—are the state-sanctioned zones of containment which variously attempt to isolate radioactive waste (i.e. Onkalo and Semipalatinsk) and contaminated sites (i.e. Chernobyl and Fukushima). Analysed for their temporal insights, these isolation strategies are re-imagined as zones of containment. Taken together, these insights suggest that this new, multi-centred, nuclear ethics is both realistic and realizable.
Connecting the nuclear literature and Environmental Philosophy in this way draws attention to the absence, or neglect, of a sustained discussion in either literature on the critical importance of nuclear harm to understanding human and biosphere relations. Whereas the Cold War nuclear ethics literature principally concerned the moral dilemmas of nuclear deterrence and the ontology of the weapons themselves, various attempts have since been made to ‘revive’ and ‘re-evaluate’ the study of nuclear ethics for a post-September 11 world. Whilst these are welcome and necessary interventions, this thesis contributes a less hubristic, biospheric vision to this broader endeavour by re-imagining the ethics of the nuclear age in ecological terms. What is needed then is a new, multi-centred, nuclear ethics for humanity and the biosphere that displays a greater attunement to the impact of nuclear harms on the beings and things that comprise the non-human world.
Table of Contents
Prologue: Encountering nuclear harm
Introduction: Harm in the nuclear age
Chapter 1: (Re)constructing Richard Routley’s Antipodean nuclear philosophy
Chapter 2: Confronting the “last man” with the problem of nuclear harm
Chapter 3: The problem of nuclear harm for Andrew Linklater’s cosmopolitan ethical ideal
Chapter 4: Remedying the problem of nuclear harm
Chapter 5: Nuclear cosmopolitanism from an Antipodean point-of-view
Conclusion: An ethical ecology
Epilogue: The biosphere and me
Richard Routley’s Antipodean Nuclear Philosophy is an unsigned sole-authored book based on my doctorate, The Problem of Nuclear Harm: An Ethical Ecology. The expected delivery is December 2019.
A sample of related publication/s
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘The problem of nuclear harm for Andrew Linklater, Lorraine Elliott, and other contemporary cosmopolitans’, Global Society, Vol.32 Is.1, 2018, 1-16. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, The Problem of Nuclear Harm: An Ethical Ecology. Thesis to be submitted in December 2017 for the award of a doctorate at the School of Political and International Studies, The University of Queensland, November 16, 2017. [PDF available on request] [To be revised and expanded as Richard Routley’s Antipodean Nuclear Philosophy]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Earth ethics on nuclear time’. Paper presented at the 2nd Peaceful Coexistence Colloquium: Reimagining the Politics and Ethics of Space for the Anthropocene, University of Lapland, Pyhätunturi, Finland, June 6-9, 2017. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Is there an ecological path to a nuclear-weapon free world?’. Paper presented at the British International Studies Association Global Nuclear Orders Working Group Conference, Centre for Science and Security Studies, King’s College London, London, England, September 8-9, 2016. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Anthropocosmic thinking on the problem of nuclear harm: A reply to Seth D. Clippard, and a plea to Mary Evelyn Tucker and Tu Weiming’, Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, Vol.10 No.1, March 2016, pp.58-65. [PDF]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘On the possibility of an Arendtian nuclear theory’, Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities, January 31, 2016. [LINK]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Explorations in Antipodean Nuclear Thinking: Val Routley/Plumwood and Richard Routley/Sylvan’. Paper presented at The Seed Box: Environmental Humanities Collaboratory and The Posthumanities Hub, Linkoping University, Sweden, September 20, 2015. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘The denuclearisation puzzle: Squaring IR theory with the nuclear-weapon-free zone’. Paper presented at the British International Studies Association’s Global Nuclear Order Conference: Power, Challenges and Responses, University of Birmingham, England, September 18, 2015. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘The biosphere and me’, Journal of Narrative Politics, Vol.1 No.2, Fall 2015, pp.153-66. [PDF]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Nuclear ethics as ecological ethics’. Paper presented at the British International Studies Association Annual Conference, London, England, June 18, 2015. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Rethinking cosmopolitan solidarity: Nuclear harm from a cosmic point of view’. Paper presented at the British International Studies Association Working Group on Global Nuclear Order: Global Challenges in a Nuclear-Armed World, University of Bristol, England, September 2, 2014. [PDF available on request]
N.A.J. Taylor, ‘Rethinking cosmopolitan solidarity: Nuclear harm from a cosmic point of view’. Paper presented at the International Society for Environmental Ethics and International Association for Environmental Philosophy 11th Meeting on Environmental Philosophy, Allenspark, Colorado, U.S., June 20, 2014. [PDF available on request]